“Thermal energy is the energy that comes from heat. This heat is generated by the movement of tiny particles within an object. The faster these particles move, the more heat is generated.

The three main factor that happened to formation of THERMAL ENERGY:-

Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection. Convection occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or gas then takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This results in a continuous circulation pattern. 
Water boiling in a pan is a good example of these convection currents. Another good example of convection is in the atmosphere. The earth’s surface is warmed by the sun, the warm air rises and cool air moves in.

Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other. The better the conductor, the more rapidly heat will be transferred. Metal is a good conduction of heat. Conduction occurs when a substance is heated, particles will gain more energy, and vibrate more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder end of the substance.

Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source and the heated object as is the case with conduction and convection. Heat can be transmitted through empty space by thermal radiation often called infrared radiation .This is a type electromagnetic radiation .
No mass is exchanged and no medium is required in the process of radiation. Examples of radiation are the heat from the sun or heat released from the filament of a light bulb.


1-Using the example of the boiling pot of water, convection occurs as the bubbles rise to the surface and, in doing so, transfer heat from the bottom to the top. Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy through space and is responsible for the sunlight  that fuels the earth.

2A cup ☕☕ of hot tea has thermal energy in the form of kinetic energy from its vibrating particles. When you pour some milk into your hot tea, some of this energy is transferred from the hot tea to the particles in the cold milk. What happens next? The cup of tea is cooler because it lost thermal energy to the milk. The amount of thermal energy in an object is measured in Joules (J).

How heat is related to thermal energy?

The hotter the substance, the more its molecules vibrate, and the, therefore, the higher it’s thermal energy. We cannot discuss thermal energy without touching on Temperature. Heat and Temperature are not the same things. The temperature of an object is to do with how hot or cold it is, measured in degrees Celsius (°C).

NOTE:-The joule, named after James Prescott Joule, is the unit by which thermal energy is measured.


1-Thermal energy is used primarily for heating and cooling buildings and for certain industrial processes.
2-Certain factories can use thermal energy to create steam to run their production sites.
3-Certain forms of life and ecosystems have built up around thermal vents in the deep ocean.
4-Airplane, rocket, and air travel, as well as hot air balloons, rely on thermal energy.                 
There is the use of thermal energy in just about any direction you point in around you.

“SI unit of thermal energy is Joules(J). The formula for finding thermal energy is given as Q=mc∆T, Where Q is the thermal energy, m is the mass of the given substance, c is the specific heat and ΔT is the temperature difference.”


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